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Computer security , cybersecurity cyber security , or information technology security IT security is the protection of computer systems and networks from information disclosure, theft of, or damage to their hardware , software , or electronic data , as well as from the disruption or misdirection of the services they provide. The field has become of significance due to the expanded reliance on computer systems , the Internet , [3] and wireless network standards such as Bluetooth and Wi-Fi , and due to the growth of “smart” devices , including smartphones , televisions , and the various devices that constitute the Internet of things IoT.

Cybersecurity is also one of the significant challenges in the contemporary world , due to the complexity of information systems , both in terms of political usage and technology. Its primary goal is to ensure the system’s dependability, integrity, and data privacy.

Since the Internet ‘s arrival and with the digital transformation initiated in recent years, the notion of cybersecurity has become a familiar subject in both our professional and personal lives. Cybersecurity and cyber threats have been consistently present for the last 50 years of technological change. In the s and s, computer security was mainly limited to academia until the conception of the Internet, where, with increased connectivity, computer viruses and network intrusions began to take off.

After the spread of viruses in the s, the s marked the institutionalization [ clarification needed ] of cyber threats and cybersecurity. The April session organized by Willis Ware at the Spring Joint Computer Conference , and the later publication of the Ware Report , were foundational moments in the history of the field of computer security.

However, in the s and s there were no grave computer threats because computers and the internet were still developing, and security threats were easily identifiable.

Most often, threats came from malicious insiders who gained unauthorized access to sensitive documents and files. Although malware and network breaches existed during the early years, they did not use them for financial gain. By the second half of the s, established computer firms like IBM started offering commercial access control systems and computer security software products.

It started with Creeper in It is considered the first computer worm. In , the first anti-virus software was created, called Reaper. Between September and June , a group of German hackers performed the first documented case of cyber espionage.

The group hacked into American defense contractors, universities, and military bases’ networks and sold gathered information to the Soviet KGB. The group was led by Markus Hess , who was arrested on 29 June He was convicted of espionage along with two co-conspirators on 15 Feb In , one of the first computer worms, called the Morris worm , was distributed via the Internet.

It gained significant mainstream media attention. Netscape had SSL version 1. These weaknesses included replay attacks and a vulnerability that allowed hackers to alter unencrypted communications sent by users. However, in February , Netscape launched the Version 2. Protecting information systems includes evaluating software, identifying security flaws, and taking steps to correct the flaws, which is a defensive action.

Collecting intelligence includes exploiting security flaws to extract information, which is an offensive action. Correcting security flaws makes the flaws unavailable for NSA exploitation. The agency analyzes commonly used software in order to find security flaws, which it reserves for offensive purposes against competitors of the United States.

The agency seldom takes defensive action by reporting the flaws to software producers so that they can eliminate them. The offensive strategy worked for a while, but eventually other nations, including Russia , Iran , North Korea , and China , acquired their own offensive capability and have tended to use it against the United States. NSA contractors created and sold “click-and-shoot” attack tools to U. NSA’s employees and contractors have been recruited at high salaries by adversaries, anxious to compete in cyberwarfare.

For example, in , the United States and Israel began exploiting security flaws in the Microsoft Windows operating system to attack and damage equipment used in Iran to refine nuclear materials. Iran responded by heavily investing in their own cyberwarfare capability, which they began using against the United States. A vulnerability is a weakness in design, implementation, operation, or internal control. Most of the vulnerabilities that have been discovered are documented in the Common Vulnerabilities and Exposures CVE database.

A backdoor in a computer system, a cryptosystem or an algorithm , is any secret method of bypassing normal authentication or security controls. They may exist for many reasons, including by original design or poor configuration. They may have been added by an authorized party to allow some legitimate access, or by an attacker for malicious reasons; but regardless of the motives for their existence, they create a vulnerability.

Backdoors can be very hard to detect, and backdoors are usually discovered by someone who has access to application source code or intimate knowledge of the operating system of the computer.

Denial of service attacks DoS are designed to make a machine or network resource unavailable to its intended users. While a network attack from a single IP address can be blocked by adding a new firewall rule, many forms of Distributed denial of service DDoS attacks are possible, where the attack comes from a large number of points — and defending is much more difficult.

Such attacks can originate from the zombie computers of a botnet or from a range of other possible techniques, including reflection and amplification attacks , where innocent systems are fooled into sending traffic to the victim. An unauthorized user gaining physical access to a computer is most likely able to directly copy data from it. They may also compromise security by making operating system modifications, installing software worms, keyloggers , covert listening devices or using wireless microphones.

Even when the system is protected by standard security measures, these may be bypassed by booting another operating system or tool from a CD-ROM or other bootable media. Disk encryption and Trusted Platform Module are designed to prevent these attacks. Eavesdropping is the act of surreptitiously listening to a private computer “conversation” communication , typically between hosts on a network.

Even machines that operate as a closed system i. Surfacing in , a new class of multi-vector, [18] polymorphic [19] cyber threats combined several types of attacks and changed form to avoid cybersecurity controls as they spread. Phishing is the attempt of acquiring sensitive information such as usernames, passwords, and credit card details directly from users by deceiving the users.

The fake website often asks for personal information, such as log-in details and passwords. This information can then be used to gain access to the individual’s real account on the real website. Preying on a victim’s trust, phishing can be classified as a form of social engineering.

Attackers are using creative ways to gain access to real accounts. A common scam is for attackers to send fake electronic invoices [21] to individuals showing that they recently purchased music, apps, or others, and instructing them to click on a link if the purchases were not authorized.

Privilege escalation describes a situation where an attacker with some level of restricted access is able to, without authorization, elevate their privileges or access level. For example, a standard computer user may be able to exploit a vulnerability in the system to gain access to restricted data; or even become ” root ” and have full unrestricted access to a system.

Reverse engineering is the process by which a man-made object is deconstructed to reveal its designs, code, architecture, or to extract knowledge from the object; similar to scientific research, the only difference being that scientific research is about a natural phenomenon. Any computational system affects its environment in some form. This effect it has on its environment, includes a wide range of criteria, which can range from electromagnetic radiation, to residual effect on RAM cells which as a consequent make a Cold boot attack possible, to hardware implementation faults which allow for access and or guessing of other values that normally should be inaccessible.

In Side-channel attack scenarios the attacker would gather such information about a system or network to guess its internal state, and as a result access the information which is assumed by the victim to be secure. Social engineering , in the context of computer security, aims to convince a user to disclose secrets such as passwords, card numbers, etc.

A common scam involves emails sent to accounting and finance department personnel, impersonating their CEO and urgently requesting some action. In May , the Milwaukee Bucks NBA team was the victim of this type of cyber scam with a perpetrator impersonating the team’s president Peter Feigin , resulting in the handover of all the team’s employees’ W-2 tax forms.

Spoofing is an act of masquerading as a valid entity through falsification of data such as an IP address or username , in order to gain access to information or resources that one is otherwise unauthorized to obtain. Tampering describes a malicious modification or alteration of data. So-called Evil Maid attacks and security services planting of surveillance capability into routers are examples. Malicious software malware installed on a computer can leak any information, such as personal information, business information and passwords, can give control of the system to the attacker, and can corrupt or delete data permanently.

Employee behavior can have a big impact on information security in organizations. Cultural concepts can help different segments of the organization work effectively or work against effectiveness towards information security within an organization.

Information security culture is the ” Andersson and Reimers found that employees often do not see themselves as part of their organization’s information security effort and often take actions that impede organizational changes.

The growth in the number of computer systems and the increasing reliance upon them by individuals, businesses, industries, and governments means that there are an increasing number of systems at risk. The computer systems of financial regulators and financial institutions like the U. Securities and Exchange Commission , SWIFT, investment banks, and commercial banks are prominent hacking targets for cybercriminals interested in manipulating markets and making illicit gains.

Computers control functions at many utilities, including coordination of telecommunications , the power grid , nuclear power plants , and valve opening and closing in water and gas networks. The Internet is a potential attack vector for such machines if connected, but the Stuxnet worm demonstrated that even equipment controlled by computers not connected to the Internet can be vulnerable.

In , the Computer Emergency Readiness Team , a division of the Department of Homeland Security , investigated 79 hacking incidents at energy companies. The aviation industry is very reliant on a series of complex systems which could be attacked. The consequences of a successful attack range from loss of confidentiality to loss of system integrity, air traffic control outages, loss of aircraft, and even loss of life.

Desktop computers and laptops are commonly targeted to gather passwords or financial account information, or to construct a botnet to attack another target. Smartphones , tablet computers , smart watches , and other mobile devices such as quantified self devices like activity trackers have sensors such as cameras, microphones, GPS receivers, compasses, and accelerometers which could be exploited, and may collect personal information, including sensitive health information.

WiFi, Bluetooth, and cell phone networks on any of these devices could be used as attack vectors, and sensors might be remotely activated after a successful breach. The increasing number of home automation devices such as the Nest thermostat are also potential targets.

Large corporations are common targets. In many cases attacks are aimed at financial gain through identity theft and involve data breaches. Examples include the loss of millions of clients’ credit card details by Home Depot , [47] Staples , [48] Target Corporation , [49] and the most recent breach of Equifax.

Medical records have been targeted in general identify theft, health insurance fraud, and impersonating patients to obtain prescription drugs for recreational purposes or resale. Not all attacks are financially motivated, however: security firm HBGary Federal suffered a serious series of attacks in from hacktivist group Anonymous in retaliation for the firm’s CEO claiming to have infiltrated their group, [53] [54] and Sony Pictures was hacked in with the apparent dual motive of embarrassing the company through data leaks and crippling the company by wiping workstations and servers.

Vehicles are increasingly computerized, with engine timing, cruise control , anti-lock brakes , seat belt tensioners, door locks, airbags and advanced driver-assistance systems on many models. Additionally, connected cars may use WiFi and Bluetooth to communicate with onboard consumer devices and the cell phone network. All of these systems carry some security risk, and such issues have gained wide attention.

Simple examples of risk include a malicious compact disc being used as an attack vector, [61] and the car’s onboard microphones being used for eavesdropping. However, if access is gained to a car’s internal controller area network , the danger is much greater [57] — and in a widely publicized test, hackers remotely carjacked a vehicle from 10 miles away and drove it into a ditch.

Manufacturers are reacting in numerous ways, with Tesla in pushing out some security fixes “over the air” into its cars’ computer systems. Government and military computer systems are commonly attacked by activists [67] [68] [69] and foreign powers. The Internet of things IoT is the network of physical objects such as devices, vehicles, and buildings that are embedded with electronics , software , sensors , and network connectivity that enables them to collect and exchange data.

 
 

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The focus on the end-user represents a profound cultural change for many security practitioners, who have traditionally approached cybersecurity exclusively from a technical perspective, and moves along the lines suggested by major security centers [] to develop a culture of cyber awareness within the organization, recognizing that a security-aware user provides an important line of defense against cyber attacks.

Related to end-user training, digital hygiene or cyber hygiene is a fundamental principle relating to information security and, as the analogy with personal hygiene shows, is the equivalent of establishing simple routine measures to minimize the risks from cyber threats. The assumption is that good cyber hygiene practices can give networked users another layer of protection, reducing the risk that one vulnerable node will be used to either mount attacks or compromise another node or network, especially from common cyberattacks.

As opposed to a purely technology-based defense against threats, cyber hygiene mostly regards routine measures that are technically simple to implement and mostly dependent on discipline [] or education. As such, these measures can be performed by laypeople, not just security experts. Cyber hygiene relates to personal hygiene as computer viruses relate to biological viruses or pathogens. However, while the term computer virus was coined almost simultaneously with the creation of the first working computer viruses, [] the term cyber hygiene is a much later invention, perhaps as late as [] by Internet pioneer Vint Cerf.

Responding to attempted security breaches is often very difficult for a variety of reasons, including:. Where an attack succeeds and a breach occurs, many jurisdictions now have in place mandatory security breach notification laws. Incident response is an organized approach to addressing and managing the aftermath of a computer security incident or compromise with the goal of preventing a breach or thwarting a cyberattack. An incident that is not identified and managed at the time of intrusion typically escalates to a more damaging event such as a data breach or system failure.

The intended outcome of a computer security incident response plan is to contain the incident, limit damage and assist recovery to business as usual. Responding to compromises quickly can mitigate exploited vulnerabilities, restore services and processes and minimize losses. Typical incident response plans contain a set of written instructions that outline the organization’s response to a cyberattack. Without a documented plan in place, an organization may not successfully detect an intrusion or compromise and stakeholders may not understand their roles, processes and procedures during an escalation, slowing the organization’s response and resolution.

In , 60, computers were connected to the Internet, and most were mainframes, minicomputers and professional workstations. On 2 November , many started to slow down, because they were running a malicious code that demanded processor time and that spread itself to other computers — the first internet ” computer worm “. In , over a hundred intrusions were made by unidentified crackers into the Rome Laboratory , the US Air Force’s main command and research facility. Using trojan horses , hackers were able to obtain unrestricted access to Rome’s networking systems and remove traces of their activities.

The intruders were able to obtain classified files, such as air tasking order systems data and furthermore able to penetrate connected networks of National Aeronautics and Space Administration ‘s Goddard Space Flight Center, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, some Defense contractors, and other private sector organizations, by posing as a trusted Rome center user.

In early , American apparel and home goods company TJX announced that it was the victim of an unauthorized computer systems intrusion [] and that the hackers had accessed a system that stored data on credit card , debit card , check , and merchandise return transactions.

In , the computer worm known as Stuxnet reportedly ruined almost one-fifth of Iran’s nuclear centrifuges. This is generally believed to have been launched by Israel and the United States to disrupt Iran’s nuclear program [] [] [] [] — although neither has publicly admitted this. A Ukrainian hacker known as Rescator broke into Target Corporation computers in , stealing roughly 40 million credit cards, [] and then Home Depot computers in , stealing between 53 and 56 million credit card numbers.

The size of the thefts has resulted in major attention from state and Federal United States authorities and the investigation is ongoing. In April , the Office of Personnel Management discovered it had been hacked more than a year earlier in a data breach, resulting in the theft of approximately The group claimed that they had taken not only company data but user data as well.

After the breach, The Impact Team dumped emails from the company’s CEO, to prove their point, and threatened to dump customer data unless the website was taken down permanently. In June , the cyber attack took down the largest fuel pipeline in the U. International legal issues of cyber attacks are complicated in nature. There is no global base of common rules to judge, and eventually punish, cybercrimes and cybercriminals – and where security firms or agencies do locate the cybercriminal behind the creation of a particular piece of malware or form of cyber attack , often the local authorities cannot take action due to lack of laws under which to prosecute.

So the Internet is as if someone [had] given free plane tickets to all the online criminals of the world. The role of the government is to make regulations to force companies and organizations to protect their systems, infrastructure and information from any cyberattacks, but also to protect its own national infrastructure such as the national power-grid. The government’s regulatory role in cyberspace is complicated. For some, cyberspace was seen as a virtual space that was to remain free of government intervention, as can be seen in many of today’s libertarian blockchain and bitcoin discussions.

Many government officials and experts think that the government should do more and that there is a crucial need for improved regulation, mainly due to the failure of the private sector to solve efficiently the cybersecurity problem.

Clarke said during a panel discussion at the RSA Security Conference in San Francisco , he believes that the “industry only responds when you threaten regulation.

If the industry doesn’t respond to the threat , you have to follow through. Daniel R. McCarthy analyzed this public-private partnership in cybersecurity and reflected on the role of cybersecurity in the broader constitution of political order.

On 22 May , the UN Security Council held its second ever informal meeting on cybersecurity to focus on cyber challenges to international peace. GDPR requires that business processes that handle personal data be built with data protection by design and by default. Since , Canada has had a cybersecurity strategy. Public Safety Canada aims to begin an evaluation of Canada’s cybersecurity strategy in early The LSG was created to overcome the incoherent policies and overlapping responsibilities that characterized China’s former cyberspace decision-making mechanisms.

The LSG oversees policy-making in the economic, political, cultural, social and military fields as they relate to network security and IT strategy. This LSG also coordinates major policy initiatives in the international arena that promote norms and standards favored by the Chinese government and that emphasizes the principle of national sovereignty in cyberspace. According to the Minister, the primary task of the new organization founded on 23 February , is to detect and prevent attacks against the national infrastructure and mentioned incidents like Stuxnet.

Some provisions for cybersecurity have been incorporated into rules framed under the Information Technology Act The National Cyber Security Policy is a policy framework by the Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology MeitY which aims to protect the public and private infrastructure from cyberattacks, and safeguard “information, such as personal information of web users , financial and banking information and sovereign data”.

CERT- In is the nodal agency which monitors the cyber threats in the country. The Indian Companies Act has also introduced cyber law and cybersecurity obligations on the part of Indian directors.

Some provisions for cybersecurity have been incorporated into rules framed under the Information Technology Act Update in Following cyberattacks in the first half of , when the government, news media, television stations, and bank websites were compromised, the national government committed to the training of 5, new cybersecurity experts by The South Korean government blamed its northern counterpart for these attacks, as well as incidents that occurred in , , [] and , but Pyongyang denies the accusations.

The 18 U. It prohibits unauthorized access or damage of “protected computers” as defined in 18 U. Although various other measures have been proposed [] [] — none has succeeded.

In response to the Colonial Pipeline ransomware attack [] President Joe Biden signed Executive Order [] on May 12, , to increase software security standards for sales to the government, tighten detection and security on existing systems, improve information sharing and training, establish a Cyber Safety Review Board, and improve incident response.

The Department of Homeland Security has a dedicated division responsible for the response system, risk management program and requirements for cybersecurity in the United States called the National Cyber Security Division.

In addition to its own specific duties, the FBI participates alongside non-profit organizations such as InfraGard. The CCIPS is in charge of investigating computer crime and intellectual property crime and is specialized in the search and seizure of digital evidence in computers and networks.

The U. Federal Communications Commission ‘s role in cybersecurity is to strengthen the protection of critical communications infrastructure, to assist in maintaining the reliability of networks during disasters, to aid in swift recovery after, and to ensure that first responders have access to effective communications services.

The Food and Drug Administration has issued guidance for medical devices, [] and the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration [] is concerned with automotive cybersecurity. After being criticized by the Government Accountability Office , [] and following successful attacks on airports and claimed attacks on airplanes, the Federal Aviation Administration has devoted funding to securing systems on board the planes of private manufacturers, and the Aircraft Communications Addressing and Reporting System.

In the US, two distinct organizations exist, although they do work closely together. There is growing concern that cyberspace will become the next theater of warfare.

In the future, wars will not just be fought by soldiers with guns or with planes that drop bombs. They will also be fought with the click of a mouse a half a world away that unleashes carefully weaponized computer programs that disrupt or destroy critical industries like utilities, transportation, communications, and energy.

Such attacks could also disable military networks that control the movement of troops, the path of jet fighters, the command and control of warships. This has led to new terms such as cyberwarfare and cyberterrorism. The United States Cyber Command was created in [] and many other countries have similar forces. There are a few critical voices that question whether cybersecurity is as significant a threat as it is made out to be.

Cybersecurity is a fast-growing field of IT concerned with reducing organizations’ risk of hack or data breaches. The fastest increases in demand for cybersecurity workers are in industries managing increasing volumes of consumer data such as finance, health care, and retail. Typical cybersecurity job titles and descriptions include: []. Student programs are also available for people interested in beginning a career in cybersecurity.

In the United Kingdom, a nationwide set of cybersecurity forums, known as the U. K Cyber Security Forum , were established supported by the Government’s cybersecurity strategy [] in order to encourage start-ups and innovation and to address the skills gap [] identified by the U. K Government. The framework defines emerging cybersecurity roles in Operational Technology. It outlines the different OT cybersecurity job positions as well as the technical skills and core competencies necessary.

It also depicts the many career paths available, including vertical and lateral advancement opportunities. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Protection of computer systems from information disclosure, theft or damage. Phreaking Cryptovirology Hacking of consumer electronics List of hackers. Hacker culture and ethic.

Computer crime. Crimeware List of computer criminals Script kiddie. Hacking tools. Exploit forensics-focused operating systems Payload Social engineering Vulnerability. Practice sites. HackThisSite Zone-H. Computer security. Application security Cloud computing security Network security. Main article: Vulnerability computing. Main article: Side-channel attack. Main article: Spoofing attack. See also: Medical device hijack and Medical data breach. Main article: Secure by design.

Main article: Vulnerability management. See also: Computer security compromised by hardware failure. Main article: Security-evaluated operating system. Main article: Secure coding. Main articles: Access control list , Role-based access control , and Capability-based security. Further information: List of cyber-attacks and List of data breaches. Main article: Morris worm. Main article: Global surveillance disclosures —present.

Main article: Ashley Madison Data Breach. Main article: Colonial Pipeline ransomware attack. Main article: Computer emergency response team. This section needs to be updated.

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